Nerve cells and glial cells, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The nerve cells have small cell bodies (blue/pink) and fine extensions called axons and dendrites (blue). The glial cells (red) have large cell bodies with thicker extensions. Neurons are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS) and from the CNS to the rest of the body. Glial cells are nervous system cells that provide the neurons with structural support and protection.